1. The blue text in the following example is a Harvard reference
In this section the content of the video extract will be assessed using Arcario's comprehensibility criteria (Arcario 1992:113), then measured against two local criteria.  
  1. The separate elements are
Arcario = author's family name
1992 = year of publication
113 = page number
  1. This information is all a reader needs to locate the source of the reference in your bibliography and all sources can be referenced in this way. This is the corresponding entry in the References.
Arcario P (1992) "Criteria for Selecting Video Materials" in Stempelski S & P Arcario (eds) Video in Second Language Teaching New York: TESOL Inc
  1. There is no need to repeat the reference in a footnote or an endnote.
  1. Suggestion to save time.
  • Put all the short references into the text as you write.
  • Have a second document open where you note down each new reference entry as it comes up - as you only need to put each source down once, this job will get easier as your extended essay progresses.
  • This will automatically generate your reference list and is much, much quicker (and usually more accurate) than trying to find all the references at the end. Do not worry if the resulting references list is not in alphabetical order; go to the page on References (in this site) to find the quick way of doing this.
  1. To reference a website, use the author where possible (most reliable and verifiable sites have authors). If there is no author, use the domain name and the access date e.g.
    How to enter websites into bibliographies can be found in the bibliography page.
( Brain online:acc. 4/1/2001 ) or
( http://www4.oup.co.uk online:acc. 4/1/2001 )
  1. Never use a source, without writing down the references to complete the information above. You will be heavily penalised and possibly failed for using unacknowledged sources.
(see the page on plagiarism).    
  1. For an in-depth document about the Harvard system, visit this website
  1. Use commonsense and consistency rather than worrying about conforming exactly to any one system.