1. Study the beginning of a references page from an extended essay about using video in the classroom. Note the use of References in preference to Bibliography, which means 'books'.
Anderson A & T Lynch (1988) Listening Oxford: OUP
Arcario P (1992) "Criteria for Selecting Video Materials" in Stempelski S & P Arcario (eds) Video in Second Language Teaching New York: TESOL Inc
Haines T (1997) ICE MUMMIES, Part Two, LIFE IN ICE, A Life In Ice - producer's notes, transcript
[online] http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/horizon/inice.shtml
acc: 18 March 2001
The script of the American version screened in 1998 appears
[online] http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/icemummies/resources/2518/htm acc: 18 March 2001
Kennedy C (1983) "Video Applications in ELT" in McGovern J (ed) Video Applications in ELT: ELT Documents 114 Oxford: Pergamon
  1. The basic formula for all reference entries is
Author(s) family name > initial >
(year of publication) > Title >
Place of publication: >
Publishing House
  1. The formatting used above conforms to the Harvard referencing system.
    Notice the right way to cite an article e.g. the last entry in the above reference list (Kennedy C).
    The formula here is:
Author(s) family name > initial > (year of publication) > "Title of article" > in Family name of editor > editor's initial > Title of source publication/number of journal > Place of publication: > Publishing House  
  1. There is no need to include ISBN numbers or repeat bibliographic information in footnotes or endnotes.
  1. Academic articles downloaded via the Athens network should be treated as text articles and referenced accordingly.
  1. To sort your references automatically into alphabetical order of author's names, select all the text in Word, go to Table then A > Z Sort.
  1. Common-sense and consistency are the most important issues when constructing a reference list.

    There will always be exceptions and certain extended essay types may suggest sub-dividing a reference list into primary and secondary research sources.

    Consult your supervisor for more advice and look at the bibliographies and references of academic publications in your field for some tips.
  1. Brush up your Word skills.

    cia Bronze basic level is insufficient to produce a good-looking extended essay.

    Many student problems with references start with inadequate knowledge of how to format and edit text.

    If you feel that your skills are not up-to-date, please visit the IT department to find more information